Coming in from left field… What is your primary source of energy used for the heating of your primary residence? I have friends in the home heating heating oil business who've had a tough time over the last 10 years as it seems most folks have converted to Natural Gas. Especially with 1 to 4 family homes. Albanian-Americans seem to be he only operators left in NYC. They've bought out the contracts / clients of a lot the older outfits. Here in New York City, we've a lot of older apartment buildings (say like 48 families). Gas conversion is difficult if not impossible in a lot of these older tenement type building ("H" shaped 5 story walkups). Although I'm being told that work-arounds are...working. As as I drive along one of the elevated highways early @ sunrise on a cold winters 'morn, you can see that disgusting, dirty number 6 home heating oil pumping out of the main chimney like black clouds of death. 4 years ago, I decided to take advantage of the very generous federal tax credit scheme and covert one of my townhouses from an ancient oil burner with twin 275 storage tanks (thankfully they were above ground because buried tanks basically require a 25 man hazmat team to remove the in ground tanks. After the tanks are split in half like an avocado, they very literally have to wipe the interior of the tanks with paper towels under the supervision of local EPA inspector. The existing chimney must be cleaned with equal care. Any leaks or spillage and you're FCUKED. Your property becomes a HAZMAT site. Basically, you lose almost all your private property rights. I've wandered off into the really deep woods here, sorry. These European (and now American and Canadian) NG condensing units get as high as 99+% efficiency. Just for reference, older American oil and gas boilers were lucky to run at 50 to 75% efficiency. So here's my anecdote: long story boring…I removed a 25 year old 185,000 BTU Oil Burner - Boiler (steam) and replaced the system with (2) separate BAXI (Made in England!! how's that?1!?) condensing units which provide hot water for heat (most of the system is radiant meaning it's in the floor where possible - the rest is traditional baseboard) and potable drinking water for showers, etc. There are 14 or 16 separate zones between both independent systems. These units are 96% efficient and perhaps a little higher because I installed a holding / feeder tank which allows the very cold water coming in from the street to practice the iron law of physics (thermodymanics) and do a heat exchange with the surrounding utility room which is usually 70 degrees or so. If you lower the Delta which is the temp difference between the water coming into the looped system by 35 degrees or so (In NYC, our reservoir water arrives in NYC and @ the house around 45 degrees or so). It takes a tremendous amount of energy to heat water from 45 degrees to ~120 degrees for potable water; 70 degrees to ~120; not so much. I'm told if I put a few solar panels on the roof that I can get the water in the tank up to 80 - 85 degrees or so. I'm not sure it would be worth the sunken cost…but, maybe? I'll definitely consider. So, here's the brass tacks: For this location, I probably spent around 35,000 to 40,000 USD to convert from a big inefficient steam boiler to (2) completely separate operating condensing units. The units themselves only ran about 3 grand a pop but this thing looks like NASA built it. I had to do extensive general remodeling just make sure we were code complaint. "B" vents don't work well in New York City…lol The sunken cost was high bout the cost recovery has been mind blowing. The cost of heating oil final year of just oil to make steam was $7500. There was a little overlap for inspections which forced to use some electric heaters for part of the heating season and a very inefficient 50 gallon electric hot water heater (what a pig!!) We pay close to 30 cent per KWH in NYC all-in. It's not practically criminal, it's very criminal. NYC ran better when the MAFIA ran things and everything was much cheaper (all utilities and especially private commercial sanitation) Ever since Giuliani ran the mob out of the carting business, prices have quintupled. I'm not kidding. The first full year of the new system cost $1820 all-in for both systems. That represents an approx $5600 savings, year over year. 35,000 CAP EX (this number doesn't factor in tax credits, which were pretty substantial) 2011 <5600> 29,400 2013 <5600> 23,800 2014 <5600> 18,200 2015 <5600> 12,600 2016 <5600> 7,000 2017 <5600> 1,400 2018 <5600> -4,200 ~around a 6 year full cost recovery! That's remarkable. There are other tangible and non tangible advantages such as not having to a dedicated "boiler room" and "oil tank room" which stunk like skunk anal glands,,, In a city where square foot prices approach $1500 p/sq ft, the space savings can be substantial and meaningful. No wonder you Ontario folks are having a property boom of epic proportions up there. Canadian Residential Real Estate is sizzling hot! It used to cost a small fortune to heat a home in Toronto. Not any more. No wonder oil is dancing around $ 45bbl. I'm happy that my fellow ugly Americans are losing that mentality of screw you - I'll drive whatever I want and burn as stuff as I want to keep comfortable. Good work, Canadians and Northern Europeans, for showing us the way!